The human body is overflowing with different types of proteins and peptides. They act as messengers that communicate with cells, and help maintain the skin’s natural strength and elasticity. As we age, protein generation slows down and the effects of the environment take their toll; the loss of collagen causes sagging and wrinkles. Peptides signal the cells to produce more proteins, and when used in skincare products they can help even out skin tone, boost collagen, reduce fine lines, tighten pores and restore skin’s elasticity.
As peptides are synthetic and have a shorter molecular structure, they can be more easily absorbed by the body. In addition, they have the ability to target specific areas of the body, such as muscles, fat cells, and other tissues. They also work well in conjunction with other skincare ingredients such as vitamin C, hyaluronic acid, and squalane. However, they do not work very well with retinoids and AHA’s, so it’s important to look for leave-on products when using them.
CPPs can be classified into two major groups based on the hydrophilic and hydrophobic characteristics of their sequence and length. The first group consists of primary amphipathic peptides, which have sequentially hydrophilic and hydrophobic amino acids in their primary structure, and they form noncovalent complexes with cargo molecules through electrostatic interaction. Examples include Pep-1, MPG and CADY peptides, which have successfully been used to deliver small interfering RNA into cells [6, 21]. The second group comprises short amphipathic peptides that lack the hydrophilic amino acids at their end, and they adopt a helix or b-sheet conformation upon interaction with phospholipid membranes.