Kisspeptin peptide is a natural peptide produced by the body and acts to regulate hormone secretion. It is also thought to promote angiogenesis and kidney function, and suppress tumor growth.
Kisspeptin is also linked to energy balance (the relationship between energy and a person’s reproductive health). It is believed that it is sensitive to energy status and that the activity of kisspeptin receptors in adipose tissue may be a key link between energy production and reproductive fitness.
Several studies have shown that kisspeptin can stimulate gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) release in GnRH receptor-deficient mice. In addition, it has been found that kisspeptin can reduce ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS), which is a dangerous side-effect of current fertility treatments such as in vitro fertilisation (IVF).
The mechanism by which kisspeptin induces gonadotropin release in GnRH receptor-deficient animals is unclear. However, it is believed that kisspeptin activates GnRH neurons through the GPR54 receptor.
To evaluate this hypothesis, we measured the effect of kisspeptin on CSF and plasma LH concentration in wild-type (gpr54 homozygous knockout) and gpr54 knockout ewes that were given a saline or kisspeptin infusion. The results show that the effects of kisspeptin on GnRH secretion are strong and persistent.
Interestingly, there was a significant increase in plasma LH levels during the kisspeptin infusion period, whereas serum LH secretion decreased before the end of the peptide infusion period. This may be attributed to a refractory response of the HPG axis to the exogenous kisspeptin molecule, or it could be due to the fact that the peptide was absorbed into the bloodstream.