Peptides are naturally occurring biological compounds that are composed of two to 50 amino acids and play a vital role in bioactivity. They are present in every living cell and perform a variety of important functions. In order for the body to maintain homeostasis and achieve optimal health, appropriate peptide concentrations and activities must be present.
The structure of a peptide depends on the type of peptide that it is. The basic structure of a peptide can be determined by determining the amino acid composition of its chain. The simplest peptides are composed of two amino acids and a carboxyl group on one side. Other peptides, such as peptides in our bodies, consist of multiple amino acid chains.
The main function of peptides in skincare is to promote skin repair and inhibit the signs of aging. They increase the production of collagen and elastin, support the skin barrier, and promote wound healing. Some studies have found that using peptides in skincare products can prevent wrinkles and reduce signs of aging.
Peptides are modified at specific sites on amino acids. The common modifications involve amino, e-amino, and thiol groups. The carboxyl group on arginine is the most frequently modified site in a peptide. Another modification site occurs in the amino acid’s C-terminus.